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Stages in Psychological Growth
After telling the stor y of the Tinder Bow, Cully Ó Muirí analyses each aspect of the story and shows how it is a tale which, in symbolic form, shows the different stages of a man's psychological growth.
|By Cully Ó Muirí|
The Hans Christian Andersen story, "The Tinder Box", gives an overview of the individuation process for men. Andersen published the story in 1835 but it is based on an old Scandinavian folk tale and has parallels with the story of "Aladdin". It recounts the adventures of a soldier who, on the instructions of a witch, gains great riches by fetching a tinder box from an underground cavern protected by huge dogs. He then has to face the witch and the power of the King and Queen in order to win the hand of the Princess.
By working through this story I hope to outline the fundamental phases in a man's journey to individuation. The version of the story I will be using is from "A Danish Story Book" 1846, translated by Charles Boner and taken from CTB Harris' "Emasculation of the Unicorn".1
The Tinder Box
Once upon a time, a soldier came marching along on the highway. He had a knapsack upon his back, and his sword by his side; for he came from the wars, and was going home. Presently an old witch met him; she was a loathsome-looking creature; for her underlip hung down over her chin.
"Good evening, soldier!" said she. "What a fine sword you've got, and what a large knapsack! You look truly like a brave soldier; and therefore you shall have as much money as you can wish for!"
"Thank ye, old witch!" replied the soldier.
"D'ye see the great tree yonder?" asked she, pointing to a stout oak that stood by the way side. "That tree is quite hollow; and if you climb up to the top, you will see a hole in the trunk through which you can slide down and get to the very bottom of the tree. I'll tie a rope around your body, that I may be able to pull you up again when you call".
"and what have I to do with down in the tree?" asked the soldier.
"To fetch money, to be sure! What else do you think!" continued the witch. "But you must know, that when you have got to the bottom of the oak, you'll find yourself in a large hall, lighted by a hundred lamps. There you will see three doors, all of which you can open, for the key is in every one of them. If you enter the first door, you'll come into a chamber, in the middle of which, on the floor, a great money chest stands, but which is guarded by a dog with eyes as large as tea-cups; but that you need not mind. I'll give you my coloured apron; you must spread it out on the floor, and then you may bodily lay hold of the dog and put him on it; after which you can take out of the chest as many halfpence as you please. But if you want silver, you must go into the second chamber. However, here sits a dog upon the chest, with a pair of eyes as large as mill-wheels; but that you need not mind: put the dog on the apron, and take as much silver as you please. But if you would rather have gold, you must go into the third chamber, and you can take as much as you can carry. But the dog that guards this money-chest has eyes as large as the Round Tower at Copenhagen. That's a dog for you! But you need not mind him: put him on my apron, and take as many gold pieces out of the chest as you please; the dog won't do you any harm".
"That wouldn't be amiss!" said the soldier. "But what am I to give you, old beldame? For 'tis not very likely you would send me down the hollow tree for nothing!"
"No", said the witch, "I don't ask a farthing! You must bring up with you the tinder-box that my grandmother forgot the last time she was down there".
"Well, give me the rope", said the soldier. "I'll try!"
"Here it is", said the witch; "and here too is my coloured apron".
The soldier now climbed up to the top of the oak, slipped through the hole in the trunk, and stood suddenly in the great hall, which was lighted exactly as the old witch had told him, by a hundred lamps.
As soon as he had looked round him a little, he found also the three doors, and immediately opened the first. There really sat the dog with eyes as large as tea-cups and stared at him.
"Ho, ho, my dog!", said the soldier. "Good fellow!" And he spread the witch's apron on the floor, and set the dog upon it. He now opened the money-chest, filled all his pockets with copper halfpence, shut it again, put the staring dog on the cover, and went, with his apron, into the second chamber. God heavens! There sat the dog with eyes as big as mill-wheels.
"You should not look at me so fixedly", said he to the dog that was keeping watch; "that weakens the eyes!" He then set the animal on the apron; but when he saw the quantity of silver coin, he threw away the coppers and filled all his pockets and his knapsack with the bright silver. Afterwards he went to the third chamber. Well, that was enough to disgust anybody! The dog really had eyes as large as the Round Tower, and they rolled in his head like turning-wheels.
"Good evening", said the soldier, putting his hand to his cap and saluting in true military style; for he had looked at him for some moments, he thought it was enough; so he spread out the apron, lifted the enormous dog off the cover, and opened the money-chest.
What heaps of gold he saw! He could have bought all Copenhagen, all the sugar plums, all the games of soldiers, all the whips and rocking horses in Europe, with the money! At the first sight of such rich treasure, the soldier threw away all the silver with which he had laden and stuffed his pockets, knapsack, cap, and boots, so full of gold pieces that he could but just move with the weight. Now he had money in abundance. The tremendous dog was put on the cover again, the door of the chamber shut, and the soldier called up the tree.
"Hallo, old hag! Now, then, pull me up again!"
"Have you got the tinder-box?" said the witch in reply.
"I'll be hanged, if I hadn't nearly forgotten it!" said the soldier. He then put the tinder-box in his pocket; the witch drew him up out of the tree; and he soon was standing again on the highway with all his treasure.
"What do you want with the tinder-box?" asked the soldier.
"That's nothing to you", answered the old hag. "You've got money in plenty; so give me the tinder-box".
"No!" said the soldier. "Tell me directly what you'll do with the tinder-box, or I'll cut your head off with my sword!"
"No", cried the witch. "I won't".
And the soldier instantly drew his sword and chopped her head from her body; so there was an end of her! He then tied up his money in her apron, put the bundle over his shoulder and the tinder-box in his pocket, and trudged off to the next town.
It was a large city; and he went to the first hotel, asked for the best apartments, and ordered the most delicate things for dinner; for he was now a moneyed man. The waiters, it is true, thought his boots rather strange looking for so grand a gentleman; but they were of another opinion next morning, after he had been out shopping; for they now had the most elegant boots to clean, and the finest clothing to brush. The soldier had become quite a dandy; he talked of the curiosities of the town, and was told about the King and the beautiful Princess.
"How can I see her?" asked the soldier.
"She is not to be seen", was the answer, "for she lives in a large brazen palace surrounded by many towers and high walls. Only the King visits his daughter; because it has been foretold that the Princess will marry a common soldier, and the King won't hear of such a thing".
"I'd give the world to see the Princess", thought the soldier to himself; but as to getting a permission, it was no use thinking of such a thing.
Meanwhile he lead a merry life; went often to the play, drove about in the royal park, and gave a good deal to the poor. It was praiseworthy of him to be charitable; but he knew well enough by experiences what a poor fellow feels who has not got a penny. He was, moreover, a rich man, had handsome clothes and many friends, who told him every day that he was an excellent creature, a perfect gentleman; and all this the soldier liked to hear. But as he was always taking from his money and never received any, he had at last but two-pence-halfpenny left. So he was obliged to leave the handsome lodgings he had lived in till now, and to take a small garret, to clean his own boots, and darn and mend his clothes himself when they wanted it. None of his old friends visited him any more; for they could not, of course, go up so many pairs of stairs for his sake.
It was quite dark in his room, and he had not even money enough to buy a candle. Suddenly he remembered that, in the tinder-box, there were a few matches (sic). He therefore took it, and began to strike a light; but as soon as the sparks flew about, the door of his room was thrown open, and the dog with eyes as large as tea-cups walked in, and said, "What do you please to command?"
"Well done!", cried the soldier, astonished; "that's a capital tinder-box, if I can get all I want with so little trouble! Well, then, my friend", said he to the dog with the staring eyes, "I am in want of money, get me some!" Crack! the dog had vanished, and crack! there he was again standing before the soldier, holding a purse filled with copper coin between the teeth.
Now he perfectly understood how to employ the tinder-box: if he struck with the flint and steel once, then the dog with the copper money appeared; if twice, the one with the silver coin; and if three times, then came the dog that guarded the chest of gold. After this discovery, he returned immediately to his former handsome lodgings; his numerous friends came to him again, and testified their sincere affection and attachment.
"Well", thought the soldier one day to himself, "'tis very strange that no one may see the beautiful Princess! They say she is a great beauty; but what good will that do her, if she is always to stay shut up in the brazen castle with the numerous towers! I wonder if it really be impossible to see her! Where's my tinder-box? I should like to know if it's only money that he can procure". He struck the flint, and the well-known dog with saucer-eyes stood before him.
"It is midnight, it is true", said he, "but I should like so much to see the Princess only for a moment!"
In a moment the dog was out of the room, and before the soldier thought it possible, he saw him return with the Princess, who sat asleep on the dog's back, and was so indescribably beautiful that anybody who saw her would know directly she was a Princess. The soldier could not help it; happen what might, he must give the Princess a kiss, and so he did.
Then the dog ran back again to the palace with the lovely Princess. The next morning at breakfast she told her parents of the curious dream she had had; that she had been riding on a dog and that a soldier had given her a kiss.
"A very pretty affair indeed!" said the Queen. So now it was agreed that the next night, one of the ladies of the court should watch at the bedside of the Princess, to see into the matter of the dream.
That night the soldier felt a strange longing to see the beautiful Princess in the brazen castle. The dog was therefore dispatched, who took her again on his back and ran off with her. But the cunning old lady quickly put on a pair of good walking-boots, and ran after the dog so fast, that she caught sight of him just as he was going into the house where the soldier lived. "Ah, ah!" thought she; "all's right now! I know where he is gone to" and she made a cross on the street-door with a piece of chalk. Then she went back to the palace, and lay down to sleep. The dog, too, came back with the Princess, and when she remarked that there was a cross on the house where the soldier lived, he made crosses on all the street-doors in town: which was very clever of the animal, for now the lady would not be able to find the right door again.
Early the next morning came the King and Queen, the old lady, and all the high officers of the crown, to ascertain where the Princess had gone to in the night. "Here's the house!", exclaimed the King, when he saw the first door that had a cross on it.
The Queen, however, was an exceedingly clever woman. She knew something more than merely how to sit in a carriage with an air; and therefore she soon found out a way to come on the traces of the dog. She took a whole piece of silk, cut it in two with a pair of golden scissors and with the pieces made a bag. This bag she had filled with the most finely sifted flour, and tied it with her own hands round the Princess's neck. When this was done, she took her golden scissors and cut a small hole in the bag, just large enough to let the flour run slowly out when the Princess moved.
But the dog did not observe that his track from the palace to the soldier's house was marked with the flour that had run out of the bag. On the following morning, the King and the Queen now saw where their daughter had been; and had the soldier arrested and put into prison. There sat the poor soldier, and it was so dark too in his cell; besides, the gaoler told him that he was to be hanged on the morrow. That was indeed no very pleasant news for the soldier; and, more unfortunate than all, he had left his tinder-box at the hotel. When day broke he could see out of his little prison window how the people were streaming from the town to see the execution; he heard the drums beat and saw the soldiers marching to the spot where the scaffold was erected. Among the crowd was a little apprentice, who was in such a hurry that he lost one of his shoes just as he was running by the prison. "Hallow, my little man!" cried the soldier to the boy, "You need not be in such a hurry, for nothing can be done till I come! If you will run to the inn, at the sign of the Golden Angel, and fetch me a tinder-box that I left behind in my room, I'll give you a groat for your trouble, you must make all the haste you can!"
The boy wanted very much to get the groat; so off he ran to the Golden Angel, found the tinder-box as described in the soldier's room, and brought it to him to his grated window. Now let us see what happened.
Outside the town a high gallows had been erected, which was surrounded by a quantity of soldiers, and thousands of people occupied the large field. The King and Queen sat on a splendid throne that had been erected for them, opposite the judges and the chancellers.
The soldier was already on the highest step of the ladder, and the executioner was just about to put the rope around his neck, when he implored that they would grant him, poor sinner that he was, one last wish. He had, he said, a great longing to smoke a pipe of tobacco, and as this was the last act of grace he should ask for in this world, he hoped they would not refuse him. But the King would not accede to it: so the soldier took out his flint and steel, and struck one, two, three times; when presently all three enchanted dogs stood before him; the one with the saucer-eyes, as well as the other two with eyes like a mill-wheel, or the Round Tower at Copenhagen.
"Help me out of my difficulty!" called the soldier to the dogs. "Don't let them hang me!" Immediately the three frightful dogs fell on the judge and the chancellers, seized one by the leg, another by the nose, and tossed them up in the air, so that in tumbling down they were dashed to pieces.
"We are not graciously pleased", cried the King; but the dogs cared little for that, and took King and Queen, one after the other and tossed them like the rest in the air. Then the soldiers grew frightened; the people called out. "Good soldier, you shall be our King, and you shall have the beautiful princess for a wife!"
Then the soldier seated himself in the King's carriage and all three dogs danced in front of it, and shouted "Hurrah!" The boys in the street whistled, and the soldiers presented arms.
Now the Princess was liberated from the brazen castle, and was made Queen, which she liked very much. The wedding festivities lasted eight days, and the dogs seated themselves at table, and stared with their great eyes.
The story begins with a man as it's central character. This is the first clue that it deals with aspects of the masculine individuation process. He is returning from war along the highway. In those days the highway was a road protected by the king. So we can say that the soldier, psychologically, the ego, is travelling the conventional and safe road to manhood. As a soldier, he is a protector and defender of the collective values. Symbolically this time of doing battle can represent what Jung saw as a man's first stage of development. This is early adulthood when a man finishes the ego development that began in childhood. At this stage his energy is directed outwards in an effort at establishing an identity through achievement and action. In the Fisher King myth we see Parsifal at this stage conquering Knights for the round table. The soldiers sword and knapsack are symbols of his ego strengths.
Meeting the Witch
The soldier meets a loathsome looking old witch. Her ugliness is shocking and unexpected. She represents one of many "shocks" we receive on the way to adulthood that challenges our conscious orientation towards life. She represents a challenge to achieve higher consciousness. This is the challenge of the second half of life where a man is called to direct his energy inwards and to reclaim the parts of his personality lost in the first stage, and to develop a deeper, fuller orientation towards life. It is the psychological mid-life crisis, or challenge.
This can appear externally as loss of a job, death of a loved one, a failed relationship, or it can show itself internally as anxiety attacks, constant tiredness or increased moodiness. Life can begin to lack meaning, even though on the surface it might appear that all needs are being answered and that one is successful in conventional terms. The trick is to see this crisis as a call to consciousness. This is the paradox of the ugly witch. She in fact is the key to breaking the stagnation, and is the call to psychological growth.
The witch represents the chthonic feminine. Originally witch meant wise old woman but from the early enlightenment period (1560's, Francis Bacon's era) with its emphasis on the rational and the rise of science, it led to the denigration of the irrational and the feminine. This was the period of the witch hunts when the feminine was demonised. "The chthonic feminine consists of feminine characteristics that are primitive, pagan, earthy and instinctual characteristics that are banished under the earth into the underground of the unconscious with the ascendance of rational Western thought.2"
For man it is the feminine part of the psyche which at a cultural, collective and personal level has been suppressed, and because it has been neglected it appears as a witch, the opposite of the Nurturing Mother. "The witch does not feed others, she feeds on them".3 She can appear in a man's life as a partner or co-worker who starts acting witchy or as a mood or depression which bewitches him of his ability to act or discriminate.
The witch can represent a man's mother complex. In its negative form this is an image a man carries of the critical mother. It is the inner voice that pulls a man down when he is successful or makes him feel worse when he is down. He is never good enough and always feels like an impostor no matter how successful he is. It can feel like being devoured or castrated. It leaves a man over-cautious and afraid of women because they might turn into his negative mother.
A positive mother complex develops when a man has been so close to his mother that he is afraid of being swallowed up or smothered. He has difficulty relating to women because he is looking to be mothered and yet afraid of being smothered. Marion Woodman describes it as follows: "The 'mother's son' for example, so vulnerable to feeling guilty that he is not 'better' or 'more manly' or 'more capable', thinks automatically of pleasing the women in his life. He may believe this is how he feels, but it is not a true feeling. It is thinking contaminated by the mother complex. It is sheer sentimentality, a plea to be loved, and, whether it is answered or not breeds resentment because it puts all the power in the hands of a woman".4
So in our story the witch is a symbol of the unconscious tie the soldier still has to the 'mother', the rejected feminine with which he has no conscious relationship. She is repulsive because rejected, yet she is the way to the hidden treasure and the source of life. Psychologically, when the witch appears in a man's life and he accepts her offer, the stage is set for change and growth.
Descending to the Depths
The witch offers the soldier money if he will descend through the oak tree and retrieve her grandmother's tinderbox.
As he descends he is attached to her by a rope. This has a double meaning. It can symbolise the tie with the nurturing mother which is needed to sustain life, particularly at a time of crisis. But is also symbolises the umbilical cord, the childish attachment to the mother which must eventually be cut for a man to mature.
The descent through the oak tree symbolises the process of individuation. Crawling through a log or hollow tree is one of the older forms of a rite of passage, or initiation. The tree symbolises life and nourishment. It is a symbol of motherhood. Adonis was born from a tree. It is also a symbol of death. Some primitive peoples buried their dead in trees. Christ died on a tree but was reborn. So a tree is a symbol of death and rebirth. As such it is a symbol of the individuation process.5
In the Earth
There the mind finds, not the feminine needed to fulfil his potential, but "his instinctual animal nature and renewed energy and light".6
Dogs generally represent the instinctual side of our nature. They are ambivalent symbols being both faithful and helpful as man's best friend, and being scavengers that are mad and vicious. In the story they protect the treasure. They remind us of Cerberus the guardian of the underworld. At first they are threatening, then they become helpful companions to the soldier. The instincts play an important role in developing consciousness and self-knowledge. The animal power and aggression of the chthonic masculine needs to be retrieved and tamed. When this is repressed in men it can be turned against themselves or burst out in violent rages. Bringing to consciousness this aspect of the psyche is an essential but dangerous task.
The money the soldier takes represents the deep energy that accompanies the instincts. "God equals self knowledge, particularly those parts of us that have been lost or buried". "Gold is also the zest for life".7
The light in the great hall comes from fire. This is often thought of as the light of consciousness that set humanity on its way to civilisation. The link between fire and thought can be seen in the Ballad of Aimhirgin, the oldest recorded poem in Irish mythology, where it says: "I am the god who kindles in the mind the fire of thought". A tinder box was used to keep flint and steel for lighting a fire. The bushmen of Africa called their "Spirit of wholeness in life", Mantis, which means "Old Tinder Box".8 Fire can represent emotion or passion that forces us to sacrifice too cerebral an attitude and release the spirit. In alchemy, fire indicates one's participation in the work. Fire also transforms and purifies. It needs to be controlled, too little and there is no life, too much and it destroys.
Killing the Witch
When the soldier comes up with the gold and the tinder box, he confronts and kills the witch. Episodes like this in fairy tales can grate on our moral sensibilities. Viewed from a psychological point of view it is a crucial turning point in the masculine journey. The soldier is cutting his tie with "the mother". The sword which up to this was used in the unconscious service of the collective, he now used consciously for himself. It now becomes a symbol of masculine energy, his power of focused consciousness and masculine discrimination. "A man must make a conscious decision to end his relationship to the mother and accept his aloneness in order to engage the life energy (the gold) stored deep within him".9 The soldier, by killing the witch, takes on the mantle of the hero, and psychologically is on the road to being king.
This episode symbolises a major transition in a man's process of individuation. It is the time of dying to childhood and release from the need of the mother's nurturance. It is a time of acceptance of the pain of aloneness and the reality of death. In mythology this event is the basis of the stories about the hero killing the dragon. For a man it requires great courage and that he be rooted in the deep masculine. It is an heroic task. "To relate to the feminine in themselves and in the outer world, men today need an heroic attitude supported by the deep masculine nature".10
The inner battle with the mother complex can be paralleled in an outer struggle. A man might need to "kill" the symbiotic tie with his natural mother, or a corporation or institution that is carrying a mother projection for him. This does not mean rejecting the mother. It means cutting the "rope that binds" so that the man can then relate as an adult to his actual mother or the institution.
In the tale the soldier, by preforming this task, has begun the journey of individuation. He has begun to claim his own power and refuse to let it remain in the service of the personal or cultural mother image.
Our soldier-hero sets off to live the good life and is learning by trial and error how to control, with the tinderbox, his new found libido. (This term is used by Jung to denote psychic energy). It is now that he hears about the Princess. She symbolises his feminine side, his Anima, what Jung called the "archetype of life". This side of a man connects him with the realm of nature and feeling. Without her he becomes lifeless. She is the mediator between the ego and the inner world. The feminine is first mediated to a man through his personal mother. The process of killing the witch, the mother complex, helps differentiate the Anima from the Mother.
After freeing himself from the mother a man is ready for the second stage of development of his feminine side. He needs now to work at building a relationship with his Anima. If he does not she will behave as a wife might who has to take second place to a mother-in-law. She will be angry and depressed and be a constant drain on his energy. This loss of energy for life is a classic symptom in a man facing a mid-life crisis and who needs to negotiate the transition from Mother to Anima.
When a man is open to his feminine side and the inner world, it frees his instinctual, feeling side and opens him to the possibility of relationship through romance and sexuality. If the anima is imprisoned or buried a man cannot enter into a genuine relationship because part of the "real self" is buried, so he is not a real person.
In this tale the princess is imprisoned by the king. She is therefore prevented from fulfilling her role of bringing new life to the realm of the psyche. The King symbolises the old parental values, the cultural status quo.
The anima might also be imprisoned by a man in the "brazen palace" of idealisation. It is natural for a man to project what is "other" to himself on to a woman. This experience of "falling in love" can, however, start as idealisation but turn to resentment when a man realises that this is a real person he has to relate to and not a projection of his inner feminine. We could say that men's culture today has imprisoned this passionate inner woman "in the brazen castle of movies, pornography, dreams, machines and fantasies". 11
For the Princess to be released the King, the old ego centred attitudes, must die. This inner death means that suffering is an integral part of the individuation process.
Approaching the Final Transition
The soldier finds himself caught in a trap set by the Queen and is imprisoned awaiting execution. The Queen in this case is the witch in another form. She represents the negative feminine which tries to prevent maturation. The soldier is sentenced to hang which in its original sacrificial form included emasculation. So here the Queen symbolises the castrating mother.
The soldier's imprisonment can symbolise a period of self doubt, that can come from the pressure of the parental images, or the culture, to conform. It can be experienced as a feeling of impending catastrophe, doubting the validity of inner needs or doubting ones ability to achieve one's own vision. Strangulation symbolises the cutting off of breath, that is, the life giving spirit.
The appearance of the boy, who agrees to help the soldier at this stage represents a turning point in the individuation process of a man. The boy symbolises the inner child, aspects or qualities of the personality repressed or forgotten but now needed. It means that a new personal attitude is needed. The boy represents a new conscious relationship with the inner self. He represents future potential and undeveloped aspects of the personality.
This inner child energy combined with the relationship with the instincts, the dogs, enables the soldier/hero to overthrow the rigid one-sided masculinity of the King, the negative parental and cultural restrictions that thwart conscious development and individuation.
The Soldier/Hero becomes Prince/King and reaches full adulthood. His marriage to the Princess symbolises union with his feminine side. His break from the psychic domination of the negative mother, the negative father and the negative cultural pressures, his rootedness in his instinctual masculine and his consequent marriage to the feminine results in life, relatedness, and creativity being added to the masculine logos, strength and action.
Jung says that the "criterion of adulthood does not consist in being a member of certain sects, groups or nations, but in submitting to the spirit of one's independence".12
It can be said that the route to maturity has six fundamental phases. In the first the mother image is nurturing and life giving. The second is marked by the appearance of the witch. The mother image turns negative and the dragon has to be faced and slain. The third phase consists of identifying and developing the masculine. In the forth phase the ability to relate is developed. This involves exploring and nurturing the feminine side. The fifth phase is the overthrowing of the old regime with which the ego has become too identified. The sixth is marrying the princess and integrating the maturing personality.
This process includes a continuous cycle of death and rebirth. Each advance is preceded by a period of darkness, depression or a feeling of stagnation when the old conscious attitudes die so that a new attitude might emerge. Of course the process is different for each individual. It can move forward or back from one phase to another. There is a need for constant renegotiating of phases. It is more of an upward spiral than a linear pattern. Nor does the process correspond with chronological age. A man in his middle years could still have to negotiate a stage that has been missed in his teens.
"The individuation process is the process of constantly transforming into our most authentic selves".13
1,2,3,6,7,9,10,11,13: Harris, C.T.B. (1994) "Emasculation of the Unicorn: The loss and rebuilding of masculinity in America". USA Nicols -Hayes.
4. Woodman, Marion. (1995) "The Pregnant Virgin" p.156. Toronto, Inner City.
5. E Neumann E. (1963) "The Great Mother" p. 48 ff. Routledge, USA.
8. Van der Post, Laurens. (1965) "The Heart of the Hunter: a journey into the mind and spirit of the Bushmen", p.166. New York, Penguin.
12. Jung, C.G. "Symbols of Transformation", Collected Works Vol. 5, Paragraph 276. Bollingen Series, Princeton, 1990.
1,2,3,6,7,9,10,11,13: cf. above.
Cully Ó Muirí trained in the C.G. Jung Centre of Ireland. He is a member of the Irish Association of Jungian Psychotherapists and works in Dublin as a Psychotherapist in private practice and as a Community Development Worker. Phone: 01 - 8684132
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